Pronouns


Kata ganti merupakan kata yang menggantikan orang atau selain orang (benda, hewan, dan sebagainya), agar tidak terjadi pengulangan kata. Kata ganti sangat penting untuk dikuasai dalam tata bahasa maupun dalam menghadapi tes bacaan.

Tabel 1. Bentuk-bentuk kata ganti orang (pronoun)



Catatan:

Kata ganti orang (who, whom)
Kata ganti benda (which,that)

Kata ganti kepemilikan (whose)


Tabel 2. Penyesuaian subyek dan predikat









A. Personal Pronoun
1. Subject
    Kata Ganti orang yang berfungsi sebagai subject.
    Contoh :

  •     I    love     you
              S      V        O
  •     Two  cats   are eating   a fish.   They   like   it   very much

                 S                   V              O         S       V     O      Adv
2. Object
Kata Ganti orang yang berfungsi sebagai object
Contoh :

  •     You    love   me
              S      V        O
  •     Two  cats   are eating   a fish.   They   like   it   very much

                 S                   V              O         S       V     O      Adv

B. Possessive
1. Dependent
    Tidak bisa berdiri sendiri. Harus diikuti kata benda
    Contoh :

  • His mother went to the traditional market
  • My sister is rich

2. Pronoun
    Selalu berdiri sendiri (tidak perlu diikuti kata benda). Bendanya harus sudah disebutkan di kalimat  atau klausa sebelumnya. Contoh:

  • The red book is mine and the white one is hers
  • The house is ours.

C. Reflexive Pronoun
Digunakan keteika subjek dan complement-nya menunjukkan orang yang sama. Contoh:

  • Nadhifa looks at herself in the mirror
  • Lutfi loves himself
D. Indefinite Pronoun
1. Indefinite Persons
  • Someone/body : seseorang
  • Everyone/body : setiap orang
  • Anyone/body  : seseorang
  • No one/body  : tak seorangpun
Contoh
  • There is someone in the house
  • I see no one in the class.
  • There is not anyone in the class.
2. Indefinite Thing
  • Something  :  sesuatu
  • Anything :  sesuatu
  • Nothing : tak satupun
Contoh :
  • Something bad happen to him
  • Is there anything that I can do?
  • Nothing is important

Catatan :
    1. Indefinite pronoun (baik yang  person maupun yang thing) kadang diikuti atau didahului dengan adjective modifier, seperti kata else. Contoh:
  • someone else (orang lain)
  • something else (sesuatu yang lain)
    2. Any one/body/thing hanya dipakai dalam kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya

3. Indefinite Quantities
  • all/all of  ...         : semua
  • another               : yang lain
  • any                      : beberapa
  • both/both of ...    : keduanya
  • each/each of  ...  : masing-masing
  • none/none of  ...  : tak satupun
  • one/one of ...       : satu/salah satu  
Contoh :
  • All of my neighbor works together to clean the road
  • None of  the students are/is clever
  • One of the girls is my daughter 
Catatan
It dapat menggantikan kata benda tunggal (selain orang)
Contoh : There is a book  on the table. It contains American history.
They dapat menggantikan  subjek orang atau benda yang jamak
Contoh : Some students are in the library. They are reading books


Exercises:
1. You can invite (he) in the party.
     You can invite him in the party.
2. This is (I) book, where is (you)?
    This is my book,  where is yours?
3. Ditha will go to the shop with (we) by car. This is (we) car. The car is (we)
    Ditha will go the shop with us by car. This isour car. The car is ours.
4. The building is very big. The building is my house.
    The building which is very big is my house.
5. You have a house. Its gate is very big.
    You have a house whose the gate is very big.
6. I meet a girl. You help her.
    I meet a girl whom you help.
7. The man wears a black shirt. The man is my brother.
    The man who wears the black shirt is my brother.
8. This is my pen and (…) are your pens.
    This is my pen and these are your pens.

LATIHAN SOAL
Choose the one correct answer A, B, C or D, to each question!
1. Nayla  : I dropped in Mr. Jumadi's house but I met ... there
    Shinta : Did anybody tell you where he went?
    Naila   : No.
    A.  everyone                                C.  anyone
    B.  someone                                 D.  no one

2. Paijo   :  Who is still in the room?
    Winda :   ... They  have gone away.
    A.   Everybody                             C.  No one
    B.  All                                           D.  Someone

3. In certain sports, all athletes have no to remain amateurs, that is, they take part in any competition as a hobby. The word "they" in the sentence refers to . . . .
    A.  all athletes                              C.  sports
    B.  awards                                    D.  competitions

4. Sella    : My uncle bought me two t-shirt and I want to give you one.
    Bestha : Oh, thank you very much. How kind of you.
    Sella    : Don’t mention it. But ... do you want?
                 The red one or the blue one?
    Besthe : The red one, please!

    A.  what                                        C.  which one
    B.  whose                                      D.  whom

5. Susanti : Can I have some apples, please?
    Salesman: ... do you want?
    Susanti : The Australian ones, please!

    A. How many                               C.  Which
    B. How many                                D.  What

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